Stepper motor principle

- Jan 25, 2019-

A stepper motor is an actuator that converts electrical pulses into angular displacement. When the stepper driver receives a pulse signal, it drives the stepper motor to rotate a fixed angle (called the "step angle") in a set direction, and its rotation is step by step at a fixed angle. The angular displacement can be controlled by controlling the number of pulses to achieve the purpose of accurate positioning. At the same time, the speed and acceleration of the motor rotation can be controlled by controlling the pulse frequency, thereby achieving the purpose of speed regulation. The stepping motor can be used as a special motor for control. It is widely used in various open-loop control because it has no accumulation error (100% accuracy).

More commonly used stepper motors include reactive stepper motors (VR), permanent magnet stepper motors (PM), hybrid stepper motors (HB), and single-phase stepper motors.

The rotor inside the servo motor is a permanent magnet. The U/V/W three-phase electric motor controlled by the driver forms an electromagnetic field. The rotor rotates under the action of the magnetic field. At the same time, the encoder feedback signal from the motor is supplied to the driver. The driver according to the feedback value and target. The values are compared to adjust the angle at which the rotor rotates. The accuracy of the servo motor is determined by the accuracy (number of lines) of the encoder.

A stepper motor is an open-loop control element that converts an electrical pulse signal into an angular displacement or line displacement. In the case of non-overloading, the speed and stop position of the motor depend only on the frequency of the pulse signal and the number of pulses, and are not affected by the load change, that is, a pulse signal is applied to the motor, and the motor rotates through a step angle. The existence of this linear relationship, plus the stepper motor only periodic error without cumulative error. It is very simple to control the change with a stepping motor in the control field such as speed and position.

Although stepper motors have been widely used, stepper motors are not as conventional DC motors, and AC motors are used under normal conditions. It must be composed of a dual ring pulse signal, a power drive circuit, etc. to form a control system. Therefore, the use of stepper motors is not an easy task. It involves many professional knowledge such as machinery, motors, electronics and computers.

There are indeed many manufacturers of stepping motors, but they have professional technicians who can develop them themselves. There are very few manufacturers. Most of them are only one or twenty people, even the most basic equipment. Just in a blind copying stage. This causes the user to cause a lot of trouble in product selection and use. In the above situation, we decided to take a wide range of inductive stepper motors as an example. Describe the basic working principle. Hope to help the majority of users in the selection, use, and machine improvement.